Mold is the basic process equipment of the automobile industry. More than 90% of the parts and components in automobile production need to be formed by mold. It takes about 1500 sets of molds to manufacture an ordinary car, of which about 1000 sets of stamping molds are used. In the development of new models, 90% of the workload is carried out around the change of the body profile. Approximately 60% of the development cost of new models is used for the development of body and stamping processes and equipment. About 40% of the vehicle manufacturing cost is the cost of body stamping parts and assembly. In the development of the automobile mold industry at home and abroad, mold technology has shown the following development trends.
1. The position of mold 3D design is consolidated
The three-dimensional design of the mold is an important part of the digital mold technology and the basis for the integration of mold design, manufacturing, and inspection. Companies such as Toyota and General Motors of the United States have realized the three-dimensional design of molds and achieved good application results. Some methods adopted in the 3D mold design abroad are worthy of our reference. In addition to being conducive to the realization of integrated manufacturing, the three-dimensional design of the mold has another advantage that it is convenient for interference inspection and can perform motion interference analysis, which solves a problem in the two-dimensional design.
2. The simulation of stamping process (CAE) is more prominent
In recent years, with the rapid development of computer software and hardware, the simulation technology (CAE) of the stamping and forming process has played an increasingly important role. In developed countries such as the United States, Japan, and Germany, CAE technology has become a necessary part of the mold design and manufacturing process. It is widely used to predict forming defects, optimize the stamping process and mold structure, improve the reliability of mold design, and reduce the trial time. Many domestic automobile mold companies have also made significant progress in the application of CAE and achieved good results. The application of CAE technology can greatly save the cost of trial molds and shorten the development cycle of stamping molds, which has become an important means to ensure mold quality. CAE technology is gradually transforming mold design from empirical design to scientific design.
3.Digital mold technology has become the mainstream direction
Digital mold technology, which has been rapidly developed in recent years, is an effective way to solve many problems faced in the development of automotive molds. The so-called digital mold technology is the application of computer technology or computer-aided technology (CAX) in the mold design and manufacturing process. Summarizing the successful experience of domestic and foreign automotive mold companies in applying computer-aided technology, digital automotive mold technology mainly includes the following aspects: ① Design for manufacturability (DFM), that is, manufacturability is considered and analyzed during design to ensure the success of the process. ②Auxiliary technology for mold profile design, develop intelligent profile design technology. ③CAE assists in analyzing and simulating the process of stamping forming, predicting and solving possible defects and forming problems. ④ Replace the traditional two-dimensional design with a three-dimensional mold structure design. ⑤The mold manufacturing process adopts CAPP, CAM and CAT technology. ⑥ Under the guidance of digital technology, deal with and solve the problems that arise in the process of mold trial and stamping production.
4.The rapid development of mold processing automation
Advanced processing technology and equipment are an important foundation for improving productivity and ensuring product quality. It is not uncommon for advanced automotive mold companies to have CNC machine tools with dual worktables, automatic tool changers (ATC), photoelectric control systems for automatic processing, and online workpiece measurement systems. Numerical control processing has developed from simple profile processing to comprehensive processing of profile and structural surfaces, from medium and low-speed processing to high-speed processing, and the development of processing automation technology is very rapid.
5. High-strength steel plate stamping technology is the future development direction
Due to the excellent properties of high-strength steel in terms of yield ratio, strain hardening characteristics, strain distribution ability, and collision energy absorption, the use of high-strength steel in automobiles continues to increase. At present, the high-strength steels used in automotive stampings mainly include paint hardening steel (BH steel), dual-phase steel (DP steel), and phase transformation induced plasticity steel (TRIP steel). The International Ultra Light Body Project (ULSAB) predicts that 97% of the advanced concept models (ULSAB—AVC) launched in 2010 will be high-strength steel. The proportion of steel will account for 74% of automotive steel plates.
IF steels, which are now widely used, will be replaced by high-strength steel plates, and high-strength low-alloy steels will be replaced by dual-phase steels and ultra-high-strength steel plates. At present, the application of high-strength steel plates for domestic auto parts is mostly limited to structural parts and beams, and the tensile strength of the materials used is mostly below 500MPa. Therefore, quickly mastering the stamping technology of high-strength steel plates is an important problem that needs to be solved urgently in my country’s automobile mold industry.
6. New mold products will be launched in due course
With the development of high-efficiency and automation of automotive stamping production, progressive dies will be more widely used in the production of automotive stamping parts. Complicated shape stamping parts, especially some small and medium-sized complicated stamping parts that require multiple sets of punching dies according to the traditional process, are increasingly formed by progressive dies. Progressive die is a kind of high-tech mold product, which is technically difficult, requires high manufacturing precision, and has a long production cycle. Multi-station progressive die will be one of the most important mold products in my country.
7.Mold materials and surface treatment technology will be reused
The quality and performance of mold materials are important factors that affect mold quality, life and cost. In recent years, in addition to the continuous introduction of a variety of high toughness and high wear resistance cold work die steels, flame quenched cold work die steels, and powder metallurgy cold work die steels, it is worthwhile to use cast iron materials for large and medium-sized stamping dies abroad. Concerned about the development trend. Nodular cast iron has good toughness and wear resistance, its welding performance, workability, surface hardening performance are also good, and the cost is lower than alloy cast iron, so it is more used in automobile stamping dies.
8. Scientific management and informatization is the development direction of mold enterprises
Another important aspect of the development of automobile mold technology is the scientific and informatization of management. The scientific management has enabled mold companies to continue to develop in the direction of Just-in-TimeManufacturing and LeanProduction. Enterprise management is more accurate, production efficiency is greatly improved, and ineffective institutions, links and personnel are continuously streamlined. With the advancement of modern management technology, many advanced information management tools, including enterprise resource management system (ERP), customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), project management (PM), etc., are used in mold companies It is widely used.
9.The refined manufacturing of molds is an inevitable trend
The so-called refined manufacturing of molds refers to the development process and manufacturing results of molds. It is specifically manifested in the rationalization of stamping process and mold structure design, high precision of mold processing, high reliability of mold products, and strict technical management. sex. Refined mold manufacturing is not a single technology, the second is a comprehensive reflection of design, processing and management technology. The realization of refined mold manufacturing not only depends on technical excellence, but also depends on strict management to ensure.
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